General information

Flag_of_Vietnam                            Coat_of_arms_of_Vietnam

Flag of Vietnam                                       Coat of Arms of Vietnam

Country :           THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Capital :             HANOI (HÀ NỘI)
Population :       88,87 million inhabitants (2011)
Mainland territory :         331,150.4 km2
Continental shelf area :    1,000,0000 km2
Coastline : 3,260 km
Inland coordinates :
– Latitude : 102o10’ – 109o30’ East
– Longitude : 08o30’ – 23o20’ North

Lying on the eastern part of the Indochinese peninsula, Vietnam is a strip of land shaped like the letter “S”. China borders it to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, the East Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the east and south.

Lying on the eastern part of the Indochinese peninsula, Vietnam is a strip of land shaped like the letter “S”. China borders it to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, the East Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the east and south.

The country’s total length from north to south is 1,650km. Its width, stretching from east to west, is 600km at the widest point in the north, 400km in the south, and 50km at the narrowest part, in the centre, in Quang Binh Province. The coastline is 3,260km long and the inland border is 4,510km.

Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces and 5 municipalities (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Can Tho).

Mountain and hill : Mountains and highlands occupy three fourth of the country’s area. The mountain systems stretch from the Northwest border to the east of the South Vietnam, with the total length of 1,400 kilometers.

The highest peak:  Phanxipan 3,143 meters.

Plains : The Red River delta (15,000 km2) & The Mekong delta (40,000 km2).

Major rivers: The total length of all rivers is 41,000 km with water flow approximately 300 billion cubic meters and 3,100 km of channels.
The Red River is 1,149 km long, of which 510 km runs on Vietnamese territory.
The Mekong River is 4,220 km long, of which 220 km runs on Vietnamese territory.

Railway : 2.600 km with 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network as of 2005

Airway : Including Vietnam Airlines, Jetstar, Vietjet & Mekong Air.

The major airports are : Noi Bai (Hanoi), Tan Son Nhat (Ho Chi Minh city), Da Nang, Phu Bai (Hue), Cat Bi (Hai Phong), Dien Bien (Lai Chau), Vinh (Nghe An), Nha Trang, Can Tho…

1 – HISTORY OF VIETNAM

The origins of the Vietnamese people are shrouded in legend. A legend has it that a Dragon and a Fairy meet each other, and then a bag of one hundred eggs was born. In order to control the country easily, fifty of them went up to the mountain with their Mother, the Fairy, and the other fifty went down to the ocean with their Father, the Dragon.

Scientists say that Vietnam is one of the earliest cradles of human race. Recent archeological finds indicate that the earliest human habitation of northern Vietnam goes back about 500,000 years. Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures existed in northern Vietnam 10,000 years ago; there groups may have engaged in primitive agriculture as early as 7000 BC. The sophisticated Bronze Age Dong Son culture emerged around the 13th century BC.

Vietnam, as a nation called Van Lang, was formed 4,000 years ago by the Hung kings. The second historic period lasted 1,000 years (from 111 BC to 938 AD). Generations of Vietnamese kept on fighting for national independence. In 938, with the decisive victory over Chinese feudalists, Ngo Quyen began the era of building and defending the ruling dynasties in Vietnam. Since 1945, Vietnam history has turned to a new page. A democratic country for working people came into existence. The result of the long patriotic war was the glorious victory that brought back the independence and national reunification to the country. On September 2nd, 1945, Vietnam commemorated its founding as independent country with the Declaration of Independence proclaimed by President Ho Chi Minh. Since then, the Vietnamese people have not only rebuilt their country but also continued fighting against invaders to defend the national independence.

Vietnam now is a country composed of 54 peoples, among which the Kinh or Viet is the majority, mainly lives on the river deltas and along the coastline regions. The other 53 ethnic minorities, such as the Thai, Tay, Nung, Cham, Co Ho … live in the highlands. Each has its own identity and culture, contributing to a rich diversity throughout Vietnam. Vietnamese culture is evident in the Kinh women’s graceful traditional dress. – the Ao Dai and in the “Non La” (conical hat), as well as in a wide variety of delicious traditional Vietnamese cuisine, one of which is fresh seafood deserves a special praise.

With “Doi Moi” policy and with 4,000 years of history and 3,260 kilometers of pristine coastline, Vietnamese people are always eager to offer a warm welcome. Vietnam lies in the central part of Southeast Asia and in the northeast of Indochina’s peninsula. With its beauty and charm, hard working and progress-minded people, Vietnam has become an attractive destination to foreign investors and tourists.

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2 – VIETNAM HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS 

Official Public Holidays
01 Jan.            New Year
03 Feb.            The Foundation of the Communist Party of Vietnam
30 Apr.            The Liberation Day
01 May             International Labor Day
19 May             President Ho Chi Minh’s Birthday
02 Sep.            National Day of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
25 Dec.            Christmas Day

Traditional Holidays (Lunar Month)
01Jan.             Lunar New Year
10 Mar.            Hung King’s Anniversary
02 Apr.            New Year’s Day of Khmer people in Mekong Delta
15 Apr.            Buddha’s Birthday
15 Aug.            Mid-Autumn Festival
29 Aug.            Kate Festival (Ninh Thuan) of Cham people
15 Oct.            “Ok-Om-Bok” Festival of Khmer people in Mekong Delta

Popular Cultural Festival (Lunar Month)
02 Jan.            Lieu Doi Festival (Ha Nam)
05 Jan.            Dong Da Festival (Hanoi)
10 Jan.            Elephant Race Day, held by M’Nong people in Central Highland
13 Jan.            Lim Festival (Bac Ninh) with Quan Ho folk song contest
15 Jan.            Spring Festival at Ba Den Mountain (Tay Ninh)
15 Feb.            Huong Pagoda Festival, Buffalo Stabbing for celebrating well harvests
10 Mar.            Hung Temple Festival (Phu Tho)
09 Apr.            Giong Festival (Hanoi) : performing Giong defeated An invader
26 Apr.            Chua Xu Festival (An Giang)
16 Jun.            Greeting Whale Festival (Tien Giang and Ben Tre)
30 Jul.            Lang Ong Festival (HCMC): Le Van Duyet’s Anniversary
15 Aug.            Greeting Whale Festival (Can Gio – Ho Chi Minh City)
10 Aug.            Buffalo Fighting Festival (Do Son – Hai Phong),

3 – CLIMATE

Vietnam is located between 9 and 23 degrees north. Eastern Vietnam has a long coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea. It has a tropical monsoon type of climate; from May-Sep the south monsoon sets in, and the country is dominated by south to southeasterly winds. From Oct-April, the north monsoon is dominant with northerly to northeasterly winds affecting the country. There is a transition period between each monsoon season when winds are light and variable.

The country is mountainous in the northwest and in the central highlands facing the South China Sea, with peaks reaching up to 8000ft (2450m) In the north around Hanoi and in the south around Ho Chi Minh City, there are extensive low-lying regions in the Red River delta and the Mekong delta respectively.

Vietnam has a single rainy season during the south monsoon (May-Sep). Rainfall is infrequent and light during the remainder of the year. Rainfall is abundant, with annual rainfall exceeding 1000mm almost everywhere. Annual rainfall is even higher in the hills, especially those facing the sea, in the range of 2000-2500mm.

For coastal areas and the parts of the central highlands facing northeast, the season of maximum rainfall is during the south monsoon, from Sep-Jan. These regions receive torrential rain from typhoons which move in from the South China Sea at this time of the year. The weather at this time is cloudy with frequent drizzle.

During the north monsoon, northern Vietnam has cloudy days with occasional light rain, while southern Vietnam tends to be dry and sunny.

Temperatures are high all year round for southern and central Vietnam; but northern Vietnam has a definite cooler season. Frost and some snow may occur on the highest mountains in the north for a few days a year. In the southern Vietnam, the lowlands are sheltered from outbreaks of colder northerly air and the dry season is warm to hot with much sunshine.

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Hanoi

Month Rainfall (mm) Temperature (oC)
Average monthly Ave. no. of days with 1mm Average daily Lowest recorded Highest recorded
min max
Jan 19 8 12 20 6 33
Feb 27 13 13 21 7 35
Mar 39 14 18 24 11 37
Apr 80 15 21 29 10 38
May 198 16 22 32 15 42
Jun 240 14 25 33 20 39
Jul 322 16 26 32 23 40
Aug 345 17 25 32 21 39
Sep 250 13 24 31 18 37
Oct 99 9 23 28 14 37
Nov 44 8 19 25 8 36
Dec 21 7 16 21 7 37

 

Ho Chi Minh city

Month

Rainfall (mm) Temperature (oC)
Average monthly Ave. no. of days with 1mm Average daily Lowest recorded Highest recorded
min max
Jan 14 3 21 32 13 37
Feb 4 2 22 33 15 38
Mar 12 2 23 34 19 39
Apr 42 5 24 34 20 40
May 220 15 25 33 21 39
Jun 331 22 24 32 22 38
Jul 313 23 25 31 20 35
Aug 267 20 24 32 19 34
Sep 334 21 23 31 21 35
Oct 268 20 23 31 20 34
Nov 115 12 22 30 18 35
Dec 56 8 22 31 15 36

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